Part 2

Time and Temperature Control of Foods

Concepts  Image of Thermometer

Bacteria can grow when foods enter the temperature danger zone, which is between 41F and 135F.

Therefore foods should be kept out of the temperature danger zone, or pass through the zone within as brief period of time as possible during thawing, reheating, or cold holding or hot holding, or cooling down food. The most rapid bacteria growth occurs between 70 and 125 degrees.

Thawing allows foods to enter the danger zone. So improper thawing can allow bacteria to rapidly grow in the outer layers while the core is still frozen. So the best thawing method is to move the food from frozen storage to the cooler so it will  not remain in the danger zone for not more than two hours. Never thaw food at room temperature or in warm water, or in the microwave.

In reheating foods, bring the temperature of the food to at least 165F for at least 15 seconds within two hours. Then promptly move the food to hot holding.

Cold holding of foods must be held in the refrigerator at 41F or below

Hot holding of foods must be held at or above 135F

In cooling foods down, cool from 135F to 70F within the first 2 hours. Total cooling from 135F to 41F or less in 6 hours.

When In Doubt, Throw it Out:  If you discover that a food has been held in the danger zone, but you're not sure how long, discard it. The rule is "When in doubt, throw it out!"

Applying the Concepts To Our Operation

Soups and Chili:  Avoid reheating these by moving directly to hot holding as soon as cooking is done. Check that the soup or chili rises to 165 F, then move it immediately to hot holding. During hot holding, regularly check that the temperature maintains at 135 F or above.

If you fail to move directly to hot holding and therefore need to re-heat the soup or chili, do it quickly (within one hour or so) to 165F. Stir the food to be sure that all parts of it are hot. Then use the metal stem thermometer to check the temperature.

Thawing Chili Meat:  The standard for thawing chili meat is to place a new frozen chili meat into the refrigerator each time you make a chili base. With this method, the chili meat never enters the danger zone. If there is only frozen chili meat, thaw the safely as follows:

  1. Place the frozen chili meat in the chili pot on a low flame.
  2. Add a cup of cold water.
  3. Place a lid on the chili pot.
  4. Begin to cook the chili by constantly attending to it and scraping off the outer thawed layer of meat with the large spoon.
  5. Complete this process within about 30-60 minutes. As the chili meat enters the danger zone, it will not remain in it for longer than about one hour which is acceptable.

Never thaw the chili meat under cold running water or in warm or hot water, and never in the microwave.

Corned Beef Hash:  In thawing Corned beef hash, we partial thaw in the cooler, just enough to be able to cut it into individual portions. Then portion up and freeze again. Be sure to date mark the food container holding the portions. Never let the corned beef hash sit out at room temperature to thaw.

Steaks:  Keep one case thawing in the refrigerator at all times, keeping all other cases frozen. In the event someone failed to place a case of steaks into the refrigerator for thawing, place the sealed packages of steaks in cold water for quick thawing.

Image of EggsRaw Shell Eggs:  are considered a potentially hazardous food, especially when kept at room temperature.

  1. Full cases of eggs are to be stored in the cooler at all other times.
  2. Remove from the cooler, only enough trays of eggs to be used within four (4) hours.
  3. Any trays of eggs that are held at room temperature for more than four hours, must be discarded.

Food Storage and Limiting Length of Storage

First In First Out (FIFO)

Food must stored on shelves and in refrigeration using the First In First Out method so it is used in the order it was received. Therefore when stock is put into kitchen storage it must be placed newest behind oldest. This is the FIFO method: First In, First Out method of food rotation.

Date Marking

Image of Prep Lables Any ready-to-eat potentially hazardous food must be marked with a discard date at the time of opening or preparation. These foods must have a discard date of no more than seven days after opening, cooking or preparing.

Cleaning and Sanitizing (Food Contact Surfaces)

Food that comes into contact with soiled surfaces can easily become contaminated and food-borne illness can be spread.

Wash Image of Green Bucket

Wash tables, cutting boards and equipment with hot soapy water from the green bucket.

Sanitize Image of Red Bucket

Sanitize with a clean wiping cloth from the bleach/water sanitizing solution in the red bucket.

Bacteria can grow very quickly in damp cloths. That is why all wiping cloths must be stored in the red bucket with chlorine/water sanitizing solution mixed to proper concentration between uses.

Chlorine/water sanitizing solution should be between 50 and 100 parts per million (ppm) while in the red bucket. Change the bucket often and test the solution, at least every 2-3 hours depending on usage.

Test Strips

Image of Test Strips

For the Sanitizer Bucket

Test the red sanitizer bucket water using the test strips found on the wall. It's a simple process of inserting a test strip into the water:

1) As the water comes out of the dispenser, it should read 100 ppm

2) In the bucket it should read between 50-100 ppm, and definitely not less than 50 ppm.

For the Dish Machine

The dish washing machine also uses bleach water to sanitize. Check the sanitizer water in the dish machine by inserting a test strip into the water immediately after the final rinse. It should test to 50 (ppm).

Food Allergy Procedures

Restaurant employees need to have an understanding of food allergies in order to protect customers who identify that they have a food allergy and inquire about the preparation or content of our foods. The allergic individual if exposed to a particular allergen, can suffer a mild to life threatening reaction. The only control is avoidance of the particular allergen.

The Big-8 Major Food Allergens

Image of Allergens

Symptoms of Allergic Reaction

Customers with Food Allergies

When a guest informs you that he or she has a food allergy you may need to inform them of ingredients in the foods they are ordering. Be understanding, listen carefully, and answer thoughtfully. If you're not sure of the ingredients it is safer to say "I don't know", and then seek the manager to find out.

Cross Contact and Allergies

As it relates to allergies, cross contact occurs when one food comes into contact with another food and their proteins mix.

As a result, one food may contain small amounts of the other food, which is often invisible. Contact may be direct (e.g. cheese on a hamburger), indirect via hands, or from utensils.

Even a tiny amount of the allergenic food is enough to cause an allergic reaction in some people. Therefore precautions must be taken to avoid cross contact.

For servers:  Allergens may enter a meal through cross contact during the serving process. Unclean hands, splashed or spilled food, improperly cleaned tables, chairs, utensils, shared utensils, apron or uniform pockets.

For cooks:  Shared pans, fryers, grills, counters, dishes, trays, cutting boards and utensils like knives, improperly cleaned equipment, unclean hands or gloves, spills or splattering while cooking, and removing an allergy-causing food from a meal without replacing the whole meal (such as scraping cheese from a cheeseburger instead of making a new hamburger with no cheese).

If a Customer Has an Allergic Reaction

Call emergency medical services immediately. It is also important to keep the person where they are and not have them stand into an upright position.

Person-In-Charge Responsibilities

During a health inspection, the inspector may ask who is the "person in charge". That is you, if you are the cook!  The cook may be asked to answer a few questions about hand-washing, about the bare-hand-contact plan, or other questions specific to the contents of this training manual.

Think of these as a simple questions about the good hygiene and safe food handling practices that you just read about and use every day on the job.

The health inspector may ask you questions about:

Certification of Training - Part 2

Please sign click here.

You were asked to sign off on the following form during orientation.


Food Safety Training
Bare Hand Contact Agreement

I the undersigned, have read  this Food Safety Training guide and specifically acknowledge and understand:

  1. That handling ready-to-eat foods must be per the approved by Bare Hand Contact plan as approved by the local heath department;
  2. that it is my responsibility to ensure compliance with the Bare Hand Contact Plan at all times;
  3. that failure of George Webb Restaurants to comply with the Bare Hand Contact Plan will result in critical violation(s) being marked on health inspections and/or cancellation of our Bare Hand Contact Plan;
  4. that continued non-compliance could result in re-inspections, citations, fines, cancellation of our Bare Hand Contact Plan, loss of license to operate, or other punitive actions.

   Date:_______________________   Signature______________________________________

Exclusion and Restriction Policy

for Ill Employees

I agree to immediately report to the person in charge:

  1. Diarrhea
  2. Fever
  3. Vomiting
  4. Jaundice (yellowish discoloration of skin, eyes or inside of mouth)
  5. Sore throat with fever
  6. Lesions containing pus on the hand, wrist, or an exposed body part (such as boils and infected wounds, however small)

I have read and understand the requirements concerning these responsibilities:

  1. Reporting requirements specified above involving symptoms, diagnoses, and high-risk conditions specified;
  2. work restrictions or exclusions that are imposed upon me.

  Date:_______________________   Signature______________________________________

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